The breeding soundness exam of a stallion incorporates examination of different original qualities and the assessment of the stallion’s physical condition and his capacity to perform in the reproducing shed. The physical examination ought to incorporate assessment of the locomotor framework, including strong, skeletal and neurological components, and the stallion’s visual capacity.
The most dependable measure of fertility in a stallion is the pregnancy rate he acquires when mating with female horses of typical richness under perfect administration. Most stallions chose for assessment incorporate those going to be, or as of late, acquired, those going to enter the mating season, those associated with decreased richness and youthful stallions being considered for their first reproducing season. The assessment of the stallion for potential reproducing soundness comprises of 4 sections:
- general physical examination,
- examination of outer regenerative organs,
- examination of inner regenerative organs,
- semen accumulation and assessment.
General Physical Examination
In assessing a stallion’s physical condition, give careful consideration to his capacity to approach and to effectively mount the horse. Any condition (conformational or generally) that antagonistically influences his capacity to mount female horses ought to be noted and revised before he creates mental issues and ceases from reproducing. The majority of these conditions will include the musculoskeletal arrangement of the back and rear appendages. Interminable conditions like osteoarthritis of any of the rear appendage joints, constant laminitis and bursitis may thwart his capacity to cover female horses. In the event that issues get to be intense and cause enough agony, the stallion may get to be uninterested in mating.
In the event that a stallion has poor body condition, that may demonstrate lacking sustenance or despicable administration. Since poor body state of stallions may have negative consequences for semen quality, don’t assess such stallions for reproducing soundness until the condition has been remedied and no less than 60 days have passed. This will take into consideration spermatogenesis and sperm transport to mirror the stallion’s enhanced condition.
Look at the compliance of the stallion and note any adaptation deformities. Genuinely consider whether stallions with serious compliance defaults ought to be permitted to breed.
The General public for Theriogenology’s manual for clinical assessment of a stallion records the accompanying conditions as being hereditarily controlled: cryptorchism, joined immunodeficiency, parrot mouth, hemophilia, waterfalls and wobbler disorder. Any stallion found to have any of these conditions ought to be viewed as ineligible as a sire.
Incorporate an ophthalmologic examination in the physical examination. Close perception of the treatment of a stallion may be important to separate between diminished moxie and uncalled for taking care of or abuse. Note any unsoundness in a stallion and consider its degree and seriousness when assessing that stallion as a potential sire.
Figure 1. Regenerative Life structures of the Stallion
Outside Regenerative Organs
Penis and Prepuce. The stallion’s penis comprises of 3 sections: (1) the root or globule, (2) the body or shaft, (the primary part), and (3) the glans, the extended free end of the penis (Figure 1). At the point when not erect, the penis is 50 cm long and 2.4 to 6 cm in breadth with the distal end 14 to 20 cm free in the prepuce. At the point when erect, the penis copies long and thickness and the glans increments by 2 to 4 times (PDF).
The prepuce or sheath is a twofold invagination of the skin that covers the distal part of the penis when not erect (Figure 1). Examination of the penis and prepuce is most advantageously done at the season of cleaning. Permit the stallion to approach the horse so as to be invigorated to let down, at which time the penis reaches out from the sheath.
Activity alert in light of the fact that a few stallions may be hesitant to be inspected and dairy animals kick or kick in reverse at the analyst. Be mindful so as to ensure everybody included.
Look at the penis and prepuce both physically and outwardly. Handle the pole of the penis simply behind the glans. Analyze the urethral procedure for injuries and the related structures for flotsam and jetsam or other remote material. The examination proceeds up the pole where any wounds, scars or different injuries are noted. With the penis uncovered, look at the inner and outside segment of the prepuce. Typically a little measure of oily smegma is found at the base of the penis.
Any injury or harm to the penis or prepuce can be extremely unfavorable to the stallion’s capacity to cover a horse and could bring about long haul mental issues. This is especially genuine if the stallion is kicked by the female horse while endeavoring to breed her. Injury can likewise happen by despicable treatment of counterfeit vaginas.
Scrotum. The scrotum is an out pouching of skin in the inguinal zone that encases the testes. It has a longitudinal midline where the two sacs are combined. The scrotum may be inspected at the season of washing or after discharge, which may be more secure for everybody included. The stallion’s scrotum is not as pendulous as a bull’s and is held closer to the belly. The scrotum’s skin is delicate and flexible with an oily surface because of sebaceous organs. The scrotum is critical in thermoregulation of the testicles.
Testicles and Epididymides. The testes are ovoid structures, measuring 8 to 12 cm long by 6 to 7 cm high by 5 cm wide (Figure 1). They comprise of seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenesis happens and interstitial tissues of which the Leydig cells produce testosterone. The testicles ought to be openly moveable inside of the scrotal sac.
The epididymides are partitioned into 3 sections: (1) head; (2) body and (3) tail (Figure 1). The leader of the epididymis is firmly joined to the testicle’s foremost dorsal perspective. The body of the epididymis proceeds with the testicle’s rear until it ends at the somewhat expansive tail of the epididymis that is approximately joined to the testicle’s tail.
The testes and epididymides are palpated through the scrotal divider to focus their vicinity, size, symmetry and consistency. The ordinary stallion has two testes. Palpation ought to uncover that they have the same consistency without any variations from the norm of shape or surface. The right testis is ordinarily marginally littler than the left.
Focus testicular size by measuring scrotal width of both testicles. Measure scrotal width utilizing calipers at the purpose of most prominent width with a nonerect penis. Scrotal width is emphatically related with day by day sperm generation and yield. Ordinary scrotal widths range from 9.4 to 12 cm (94 – 129 mm). Stallions more seasoned than 6 years old have a tendency to have more prominent scrotal widths than more youthful stallions. Certain medicines, especially androgens, antagonistically influence testicular size.
Cryptorchidism is basic in stallions and its hereditary control is not completely caught on. The left testicle is the one most usually held. Innate cryptorchid stallions ought not be considered for reproducing.
Inner Conceptive Organs
The ductus deferens is a continuation of the epididymis and keeps running from the tail of the epididymis through the inguinal waterway to the territory of the neck of the bladder. The pipe grows close to the bladder to shape the ampulla which goes about as a sperm stockpiling organ.
Adornment Sex Organs. The vesicular organs, prostate organ and bulbourethral organs are all things considered called the extra sex organs (Figure 1). They all give a segment of the fundamental liquid, however are not required for ripeness. These organs are ordinarily rectally palpated. The vesicular organs are generally the most hard to palpate on the grounds that before teasing they are basically caved in. Be that as it may, after incredible teasing, the vesicles develop because of the collection of the gels part and are less demanding to palpate. This is the reason it might be more alluring to palpate subsequent to teasing, yet then again, most stallions are more tractable after discharge. In this way, timing the rectal examination is for the most part at the inspector’s tact.
In gathering semen from a stallion, a bounce horse or mating apparition is regularly utilized. Stallions can be effectively prepared to mount a reproducing apparition. Those prepared to mount an apparition make accumulation much more secure and more predictable. The apparition ought to be intended to be agreeable for the stallion and ought to mirror the same point as the female horse.
In the event that a hop female horse is utilized, she ought to be in great standing warmth and have her tail wrapped and perineal region washed. Limit the horse to anticipate damage to the stallion or faculty helping.
A counterfeit vagina is utilized to gather the semen for assessment. A few manufactured vaginas are accessible: the Colorado, Missouri and Japanese models. Choice of a fake vagina (AV) is resolved for the most part by administration and stallion inclination.
To set up the counterfeit vagina, fill it with water to acquire fitting temperature and weight. A few models utilize a mix of water and air to get the best possible weight. In view of stallions’ individual natures, water temperature inclination, weight and grease will change. Along these lines, it is imperative to set up the AV to the individual inclination for the stallion being gathered.
Water temperature for the AV is ordinarily between 44 to 47°C. Notwithstanding, water temperature ought to be represented by the perfect accumulation temperature for an individual stallion. Stay away from higher temperatures to forestall bothering to the stallion’s penis and sperm harm.
Grease up the AV with a clean, nonspermicidal ointment just before utilization. Try not to utilize items adverse to sperm cells. Utilize enough grease to permit simple entrance with little resistance. Warm the accumulation jug and keep it warm amid gathering to abstain from harming sperm cells.
The stallion ought to be acquainted with the horse and animated to let down. Upon incitement, wash the stallion with clean warm water. Try not to utilize cleanser or disinfectant to wash the stallion’s penis. The gathering zone ought to be sufficiently substantial to forestall harm to every one of those included.
Once the stallion has come to full erection, permit him to mount the apparition or horse for gathering. The stallion’s penis ought to be diverted into the AV, not got a handle on, in light of the fact that a few stallions take offense to being gotten a handle on. The AV ought to be held immovably for the stallion to push against and ought to be at the same point as the female horse’s vagina. As the stallion discharges, the AV ought to be brought down to permit the semen to keep running into the gathering container. Discharge can be dictated by looking for the “hailing” movement of the stallion’s tail or by the throb of semen going through the urethra at the base of the penis.
Upon finish, deplete the water to let the remaining semen channel into the gathering container. At that point keep the semen in a hatchery until assessed.
Keep all hardware utilized as a part of semen assessment at 37°C and free of any spermicidal specialists. Assess every discharge to guarantee the most extreme number of ordinary, continuously motile spermatozoa. The accompanying criteria are utilized to focus semen quality, complete sperm yield and insemination measurement: volume, fixation, motility and morphology.
Volume is basically the aggregate sum of gelfree semen in a solitary discharge and is generally measured in milliliters.
Focus is controlled by utilizing a hemocy-tometer or spectro-photometer. Fixation is essential on the grounds that it impacts complete sperm yield and insemination dosage if falsely inseminating. Most stallions will discharge give or take 7 billion spermatozoa.
Motility needs to be resolved as not long after gathering as could reasonably be expected. To do as such, put a drop of semen on a warm slide, covering it with a warm cover slip and evaluating the percent of typical continuously motile spermatozoa utilizing a magnifying instrument. Logically motile spermatozoa is characterized as those sperm cells that are swimming straight over the magnifying instrument screen and having ordinary morphology. Sixty percent dynamically motile spermatozoa is viewed as great; anything underneath 60% is sketchy.
Sperm morphology can be dictated by infinitesimal assessment of recolored smears or, ideally, stage contrast microscopy. Figure 2 demonstrates a typical sperm cell. Note any variations from the norm, for example, bowed tails, no heads, no tails, macrocephalus, twofold heads and youthful sperm cells and record the number.
Complete sperm yield is dictated by duplicating volume and focus. Figure the aggregate number of continuously motile spermatozoa by increasing aggregate sperm yield by the rate of logically motile sperm cells.
In the event that falsely inseminating, horses ought to be inseminated with 600 million typical logically motile sperm cells. Every one of these attributes join to focus the nature of a stallion’s semen.
Assessing a stallion as a potential raiser envelops numerous parts of his adaptation and life structures. As stallion proprietors or potential proprietors, we must be incredulous of the stallions we use for mating, taking into air conditioning tally their physical compliance, conceptive life systems and semen quality with the goal that we keep on presenting and produce the most astounding quality steeds. The majority of the examinations and parts said may not be utilized or inspected by the individual leading the examination. This article gives data to the kind of exams that could be led. The circumstance and circumstances of the buy will manage which ones you really utilize.
Figure 2. Typical Equine Sperm